·         Arousal

·         The Brain

·         Exercise

·         Indoor Air Pollution

·         Muscle Tension

·         Nutrition

·         Posture

·         Sensory Processing

·         Sleep

·         Other Suggestions


Research Topics


My Theories

Former Theories



The Cause of Internet and TV Addiction?





·           What are Electrolytes?

·           Electrolyte Testing

·          Effects

·          Electrolyte Drinks

·          Glucose, Carbohydrates

·          Sucrose (Glucose and Fructose)

·          High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS)

·          What to Look For

·          Things to Consider

·          Related Topics


What are Electrolytes?


·          "Electrolytes are minerals in your blood and other body fluids that carry an electric charge.

·          It is important for the balance of electrolytes in your body to be maintained, because they affect the amount of water in your body, blood pH, muscle action, and other important processes.

·          You lose electrolytes when you sweat, and these must be replenished by drinking lots of fluids.

·          Electrolytes exist in the blood as acids, bases, and salts (such as

  • Sodium,
  • Calcium,
  • Potassium,
  • Chlorine,
  • Magnesium, and
  • Bicarbonate)

and can be measured by laboratory studies of the blood serum."

MedlinePlus: Medical Encyclopedia: Electrolytes



·          "Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the human body (about 2.85 pounds in the average person).

·          When blood volumes run low, the body extracts it from the bones, but this may take more time than competition allows.

·          A constant blood calcium level is required for

·          A normal rhythmic heartbeat,

·          Healthy nerve transmission, and

·           Strong muscle contractions.

·          A deficiency in blood calcium levels during endurance events may produce

·          High blood pressure,

·          Muscle cramps and

·           Weakness.

·          During exercise, energy is produced by the conversion of fatty acids and amino acids with enzymes, which are calcium-dependant. Because fatty acids are such an important fuel during endurance exercise, providing 60-65% of your energy needs when exercise goes beyond two hours in length, having adequate calcium available to efficiently convert them into energy is crucial…"

Planet Ultra: What are Electrolytes and Why Do I Need Them?



·          "Magnesium accompanies calcium in an ideal ratio of 1:2.

·          When calcium flows into working muscle cells, the muscle contracts, then, when calcium leaves and magnesium replaces it, the muscle relaxes.

·         Deficiency of magnesium contributes to

  • Muscle cramps,
  • Tremors,
  • Sleep disturbances, and
  • In some cases, convulsive disorders.

·          Many enzymatic reactions necessary for fuel conversion to muscular energy occur in the presence of adequate magnesium. Simply put, if the body doesn't have a sufficient supply of magnesium, energy production is compromised..."

Planet Ultra: What are Electrolytes and Why Do I Need Them?



·          "Potassium is the chief cation (positively charged ion) within all muscle cells, necessary for maintaining the lowest optimal concentration and balance of sodium.

·          Potassium deficiency symptoms are

  • Nausea,
  • Vomiting,
  • Muscle weakness,
  • Muscle spasms,
  • Cramping, and
  • Rapid heart rate…

·          Too much potassium is hard on the stomach and can cause severe stomach distress..."

Planet Ultra: What are Electrolytes and Why Do I Need Them?



·          "Sodium is the chief cation (positively charged ion) outside the cell.

·          American dietary practices cause the average person to carry 8000 mg. excess sodium in the extra-cellular tissues.

·          During endurance events, 3-4 hours are necessary to deplete the 'excess' of this mineral. Deficiency may begin to occur after 4 hours, which may produce symptoms of abnormal heartbeat, muscle twitching, and hypoventilation.

·          However, if sodium is replaced at the same rate as depletion it overrides all the mechanisms involving Aldosterone, a hormone that causes the body to conserve electrolytes.

·           If you want to throw a wrench into your body’s very intricate way of regulating electrolyte balance, if you want to see your hands, feet, wrists, ankles and other body parts retain water and swell up, indiscriminately dumping copious [large] amounts of sodium in your system can make this a real possibility..."

Planet Ultra: What are Electrolytes and Why Do I Need Them?



·          "Chloride is the relative anion (negatively charged ion) that must accompany sodium in the extra-cellular tissues.

·          This mineral is absolutely necessary in maintaining the osmotic tension in both blood and extra-cellular fluids. It’s a somewhat complicated process but to put it in the simplest terms, think of osmotic tension as being the proper balance and consistency of body fluids and electrolytes.

·          We believe 180-360 mg/hr as part of the sodium chloride (a.k.a.: sodium) mixture is an adequate replacement amount without overriding the functions of aldosterone in regulating and conserving proper sodium and electrolyte levels."

Planet Ultra: What are Electrolytes and Why Do I Need Them?



Bicarbonate: Sodium Bicarbonate (Baking Soda)

Note: I do not recommend making homemade electrolyte drinks with baking soda.


·          "Do not use if you are on a sodium restricted diet unless directed by a doctor.

·          Ask a doctor or a pharmacist before use if you are taking a prescription drug. Antacids may interact with certain prescription drugs.

·          Do not administer to children under age 5.



Consult a doctor if severe stomach pain occurs after taking this product.

·          Stop use and ask a doctor if symptoms [heartburn, acid indigestion, sour stomach, and upset stomach] last more than 2 weeks."



Electrolyte Testing

·          "Measurement of electrolytes is a commonly performed diagnostic procedure, done as a blood test or as part of urinalysis.

·          The interpretation of these values is quite meaningless outside the clinical history, and is often impossible without parallel measurement of renal [kidney] function.

·          Electrolytes measured most often are sodium and potassium. Chlorine is only important in specific cases such as arterial blood gas interpretation."

Wikipedia: Electrolyte



Electrolyte Balance

·          "They keep the body's balance of fluids at the proper level and

·          Help maintain normal functions, such as

  • Heart rhythm,
  • Muscle contraction,and
  • Brain function."

WebMD: Electrolyte Panel


"All higher life forms require a subtle electrolyte balance between the intracellular and extracellular milieu, as the small electrical potentialmakes cells electrically excitable, a feature of all cells but especially of nerve cells and muscle."

Wikipedia: Electrolyte


"Electrolyte balance is maintained by oral intake and hormonal regulation, generally with the kidney as effector. In humans, salt homeostasis [to maintain salt homeostasis, the kidneys similarly adjust urine concentration to match salt intake and loss--a mechanism that operates via the autonomic nervous system] is regulated by such hormones as

·          Antidiuretic hormone,

·          Aldosterone and

·          Parathyroid hormone."

Wikipedia: Electrolyte


Electrolyte Imbalances

"Electrolyte imbalances can be caused by:

·          Diarrhea, vomiting, fever, or any problem that causes the body to lose too much water (dehydration).

·          Chronic heart or kidney diseases.

·          Chronic endocrine diseases, such as diseases of the

  • adrenal,
  • pituitary,
  • thyroid, or
  • parathyroid glands.

·          Eating disorders.

·          Medications, such as those used to get rid of excess fluid in the body (diuretics).

·          Bone disorders."

WebMD: Electrolyte Panel: Electrolytes and Electrolyte Imbalances


"If the body's electrolytes are not in proper balance, a person may have

·          Seizures,

·          An irregular heartbeat,

·          Muscle weakness, and

·          Other problems."

WebMD: Electrolyte Panel: Electrolytes and Electrolyte Imbalances


·          "Diarrhea and vomiting can cause your body to lose large amounts of water and essential minerals called electrolytes.

·          If you are unable to eat for a few days, you are also losing essential nutrients.

This happens faster and is more serious in babies, young children, and older adults."

WebMD: Rehydration Drinks


Electrolyte Disturbances

"Electrolyte disturbances

·          May lead to cardiac and neurological complications, and

·          Most are medical emergencies.

Specific electrolyte disturbances include hyper- and hyponatremia (excess and reduced sodium levels), hyper- and hypokalemia (potassium disturbances)."

Wikipedia: Electrolyte


Inner Ear

"In a normal inner ear, the endolymph is maintained at a constant volume and contains specific concentrations of

·          Sodium,

·          Potassium,

·          Chloride, and

·          Other electrolytes.

This fluid bathes the sensory cells of the inner ear and allows them to function normally."

Deafness Research Foundation: Endolymphatic Hydrops


·          Research Topics: Endolymphatic Hydrops

·          Sensory Processing: Vestibular System: Improving: Auditory (Inner Ear)


Electrolyte Drinks


"Electrolyte drinks (containing salts of sodium and potassium, as well as carbohydrates) are used to replenish the body's fluid and salts levels after dehydration caused by

·          Exercise,

·          Heat stress,

·          Illness or

·          Drought [thirst]."

Wikipedia: Electrolyte


"Giving water to a dehydrated person is not the best way to restore fluid levels, because it

·          Dilutes the salts inside the body's cells and

·          Interferes with their chemical functions.

This can lead to water intoxication [which can be life-threatening]."

Wikipedia: Electrolyte




·         It’s important to note here that Dr. Batmanghelidj’s suggestion for a rehydration drink (adding a little salt to water) is different from most other rehydration drinks, in that it doesn’t contain  an energy source (e.g. glucose, carbohydrates). For example, people with low blood volume and CFIDS who drink one quart (950 ml or 32 US fluid ounces) of an electrolyte solution daily on an empty stomach may need to also add glucose (an acceptable sugar).

·         Batmanghelidj’s drink doesn’t contain a stomach buffer.

·         It is commonly recommended to consume an additional ½ tsp of salt for every 10 glasses of water (about two quarts). Batmanghelidj’s suggestion for a rehydration drink is to add a little salt to water. Dr. Batmanghelidj must have assumed that this would not be the only salt added to your diet, since only adding a little salt to a glass of water would probably not meet the recommended amount of ½ tsp per 10 glasses.

·          “‘You also need a certain amount of sea salt in your body. It's like a little ocean in every one of your cells and you need a certain amount of salt to balance the water. If you just add a little salt to the water [preferably, a good quality, minimally processed sea salt] it costs nothing and it's cheaper than a $2 bottle of Gatorade,’ explained Batmanghelidj.

·          The doctor added that one should also add the minerals magnesium, calcium, potassium, selenium, and zinc as mineral supplements to the diet [e.g. take a multivitamin]. These minerals will maintain the proper chemical balance in the body.”

Colorado Daily: 'Dr. Batman [Batmanghelidj] touts miracle healing power of water'



Glucose, Carbohydrates

"Glucose is a normal body constituent and thus metabolized without problem."

'Sports Drinks - Are They Safe?' by Dr. William von Peters N.M.D. Ph.D


"The ingredient glucose is an acceptable sugar because it allows all ingredients to be more easily absorbed through the stomach lining."

Our FM/CFIDS World: Are Electrolyte Drinks for You?


"Sports drinks are electrolyte drinks with added carbohydrate, such as glucose, to provide energy.

·          The drinks commonly sold to the public are isotonic (containing as near as possible the blood's natural concentration of sugars), with

·          Hypotonic (with a low level of sugar) and hypertonic (with a high level of carbohydrate) varieties available to athletes."

Wikipedia: Electrolyte


Sucrose (Glucose and Fructose)

·          "Gatorade, unlike PowerAde, uses sucrose and glucose with glucose-fructose syrup. Sucrose is glucose plus fructose stuck together.

·          Because the fructose in sucroseis bound up, it ismuch safer for your body.

·          In fact, glucose is a normal body constituent and thus metabolized without problem.

·          Energy production therefore, should be higher and more consistent.

And, unlike HFCS glucose does not shut down the liver--which is needed to cleanse the body and maintain it during and after heavy activity such as sports."
'Sports Drinks - Are They Safe?' by Dr. William von Peters N.M.D. Ph.D


High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS)


"High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) consumption

·          Closely parallels…the fattening of America. And,

·          HFCS has been linked to insulin resistance and elevated triglyceride levels (a heart disease marker)."

'Sports Drinks - Are They Safe?' by Dr. William von Peters N.M.D. Ph.D


"Eating fructose results not only in

·          lower insulin levels but also

·          lower leptin levels.

Because both hormones are involved in appetite control, eating lots of fructose 'could increase the likelihood of weight gain.'"

'Sports Drinks - Are They Safe?' by Dr. William von Peters N.M.D. Ph.D


The Liver:

"Unlike glucose, fructose is almost entirely metabolized in the liver. When fructose reaches the liver, says Dr. William J. Whelan, a biochemist at the University of Miami School of Medicine, "the liver goes bananas and stops everything else to metabolize the fructose."1

'Sports Drinks - Are They Safe?' by Dr. William von Peters N.M.D. Ph.D



"The fructose in HFCS is not bound up in sucrose, resulting in more of it getting into the system faster--affecting the liver and bodily function. Not to mention that fructose also depletes the body of its minerals faster than glucose - causing exhaustion rather than relieving it. Is that why PowerAde has some extra vitamins?"

'Sports Drinks - Are They Safe?' by Dr. William von Peters N.M.D. Ph.D


"Note that these adverse effects of fructose are most severe in the growing children;consider what your child (and you!) are drinking."

'Sports Drinks - Are They Safe?' by Dr. William von Peters N.M.D. Ph.D


Collagen Production with Copper Deficiency:

"Dr. Field explains that fructose in combination with copper deficiency in the growing animal interferes with collagen production. (Copper deficiency, by the way, is widespread in America.)"

'Sports Drinks - Are They Safe?' by Dr. William von Peters N.M.D. Ph.D


More Information:

"To learn more about HFCS you can visit the Weston-Price Foundation (, and look at numerous articles on the internet detailing the adverse effects of high fructose corn syrup."

'Sports Drinks - Are They Safe?' by Dr. William von Peters N.M.D. Ph.D


What to Look For


"Your ingredients should look something like this: 

·          Glucose [improves absorption],

·          Citric acid [stomach buffer],

·          Potassium chloride,

·          Sodium bicarbonate [stomach buffer],

·          Dipotassium phosphate [stomach buffer],

·          Sodium chloride,

·          Magnesium gluconate [or magnesium citrate],

·          Calcium gluconate [or calcium citrate].

·          Some flavors may contain magnesium and calcium 'citrates' in place of the gluconates." 

Our FM/CFIDS World: Are Electrolyte Drinks for You?



"A solution which resists changes in pH when acid or alkali [base] is added to it."

Compact Oxford English Dictionary: buffer


"Stomach buffers [stomach buffers help to relieve upset stomach] such as:

·           Citric acid,

·           Sodium bicarbonate and

·           Dipotassium phosphate

are a plus." 

Our FM/CFIDS World: Are Electrolyte Drinks for You?



"When shopping for an electrolyte drink,

·          Don’t grab the first bottle of Gatorade!

·          Shop for quality and

·          Look for sugar free and

·          naturally flavored powders that are

·           easily absorbed."

Our FM/CFIDS World: Are Electrolyte Drinks for You?


"Stocking Pedialyte, or a similar pediatric commercial fluid replacement drink might be the best (but more costly option) if there are children in the house."

The Greenspun Family Server: Fluid and Electrolyte Replacement


Some Brand Names


·          Accelerade

·          Cytomax

·          Endurox R4

·          Energice

·          Gatorade (comes in liquid, powder and 'Propel' forms--different ingredients in each form)

·          Glaceau: Smart Water (quality, no sugar)

·          Glaceau: Vitamin Water (quality, no sugar, may contain herbs)

·          GNC Pro Performance: Electro-Aid

·          GNC Pro Performance: During

·          GNC Pro Performance: Distance

·          Lytren

·          Muscletech

·          Pedialyte (for children)

·          Powerade (contains high fructose corn syrup)

·          Rehydrate



"PowerAde appears to have the edge in nutrition here with its extra minerals albeit synthetic, but there are possible warning signs in the

·          brominated vegetable oil, and

·          glycerol ester of wood rosin.

The big kick in the rear - PowerAde's high fructose corn syrup."

'Sports Drinks - Are They Safe?' by Dr. William von Peters N.M.D. Ph.D




If you accidentally add to much baking soda to a drink recipe you may seriously damage your colon.


"Do not give this to children under age 12"

The Greenspun Family Server: Fluid and Electrolyte Replacement


"Please check with your pediatrician about using these home mixtures with children. They may be too strong for them. That's why stocking Pedialyte, or a similar pediatric commercial fluid replacement drink might be the best (but more costly option) if there are children in the house."

The Greenspun Family Server: Fluid and Electrolyte Replacement


Note: Please read the paragraphs above before deciding to make homemade rehydration drinks.

"You can make an inexpensive homemade rehydration drink. Measure all ingredients precisely. Small variations can make the drink less effective or even harmful.


1 quart (950 ml)


½ teaspoon (2.5 g)

Baking Soda

½ teaspoon (2.5 g)

Table Salt

3 to 4 tablespoons (45 to 60 g)


If available, add ¼ teaspoon (1.25 g)

Salt Substitute, such as 'Lite Salt'."

WebMD: Rehydration Drinks


Things to Consider

"Plain water doesn't provide any necessary nutrients or electrolytes."

WebMD: Rehydration Drinks


"The best and safest source of electrolytes is food....for example the

·          Residual water in canned veggies,

·          Rehydrated dried milk or

·          Protein drinks, also

·          Products like beef jerky [please read warning below] and

·          Power bars...even

·          Bread."

The Greenspun Family Server: Fluid and Electrolyte Replacement



·          Smoked foods smoked foods contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons which are known carcinogens.

·          Smoked foods are known to be carcinogenic when eaten as a regular part of a person's diet.

·          Most people do not eat enough smoked foods for this to be a major concern. 

·          HOWEVER, the hotter the wood or charcoal burns, the more polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that are produced. And mesquite burns hotter than hardwood charcoal, and produces much more of these dangerous hydrocarbons. 

·          One study found 8 times the cancer causing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in meat cooked with mesquite than hardwood charcoal, and 40 times the benzopyrene, the most dangerous hydrocarbon.

·          I like the flavor of mesquite, but this information gives some serious food for thought."

Food Reference Website: Smoked Foods


Related Topics

·          Other Suggestions: Dehydration

·          Other Suggestions: Dehydration: Prevention: Sports/Rehydration Drinks

·          Research Topics: Chronic Fatigue and Immune Dysfunction Syndrome (CFIDS)



Back to 'Nutrition'