·         Arousal

·         The Brain

·         Exercise

·         Indoor Air Pollution

·         Muscle Tension

·         Nutrition

·         Posture

·         Sensory Processing

·         Sleep

·         Other Suggestions


Research Topics


My Theories

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The Cause of Internet and TV Addiction?


EFA Deficiency


·        Symptoms

·        List of Symptoms

·         Keratosis Pilaris

·        Effects

·        ADD, Dyslexia

·        Depression

·        Serotonin and Dopamine

·        Blood-Brain Barrier

·        Blood Flow

·        Antidepressant Activity

·        Mechanisms of EPA/DHA Regulation of Mood

·        Correcting an Omega-3 Deficiency

·        Flax

·        2g Daily of Pure EPA

·        1g Daily of Pure EPA

·        4.4g EPA and 2.2g DHA Mix

·        Antarctic Krill Oil (400mg EPA, 240mg DHA)

·        DHA Alone not Recommended


What are EFAs?

·        Nutrition: Essential Fatty Acids (EFAs): What are EFAs?


Things to Avoid

·        Nutrition: Essential Fatty Acids (EFAs): Things to Avoid


Omega-3 Deficiency


List of Symptoms

"These signs include

·        dry hair,

·        dry skin (often noticed as a 'goosebump' rash on the upper arms and/or upper thighs),

·        excessive thirst,

·        frequent urination,

·        problems with attention and so on."

ILT: Essential Fatty Acids (EFAs)


Keratosis Pilaris

Keratosis Pilaris: Definition

"Keratosis pilaris is a common skin condition that looks like small goose bumps, which are actually dead skin cells that build up around the hair follicle." Keratosis Pilaris


Keratosis Pilaris: Description

·        "Keratosis pilaris is a disorder that occurs around the hair follicles of the upper arms, thighs, and sometimes the buttocks.

·        It presents as small, benign bumps or papules that are actually waxy build-ups of keratin. Normally skin sloughs off. However, around the hair follicle where the papules form, the keratinized skin cells slough off at a slower rate, clogging the follicles.

·        This is generally thought to be genetic disorder, although the symptoms of keratosis pilaris are often seen with ichthyosis and allergic dermatitis. It can also be observed in people of all ages who have either inherited it or have a vitamin A deficiency or have dry skin.

·        Keratosis pilaris is a self-limiting disorder that disappears as the person ages.

·        It can become more severe when conditions are dry such as during the winter months or in dry climates." Keratosis Pilaris


Keratosis Pilaris: Causes and Symptoms

"The specific causes of this disorder are unknown. Since this disorder runs in families, it is thought to be hereditary. Keratosis pilaris is not a serious disorder and is not contagious.

The symptoms of keratosis pilaris are based on the development of small white papules the size of a grain of sand on the upper arms, thighs, and occasionally the buttocks and face. The papules occur around a hair follicle and are firm and white. They feel a little like coarse sandpaper, but they are not painful and there usually is no itching associated with them. They are easily removed and the material inside the papule usually contains a small, coiled hair." Keratosis Pilaris


Keratosis Pilaris: Treatment

·        "To treat keratosis pilaris patients can try several strategies to lessen the bumps.

·        First, the patient can supplement the natural removal of dry skin and papules by using a loofah or another type of scrub showering or bathing.

·        A variety of different over-the-counter (OTC) lotions, ointments, and creams can also be applied after showering while the skin is still moist and then several times a day to keep the area moist.

·        Medicated lotions with urea, 15% alphahydroxy acids, or Retin A can also be prescribed by the dermatologist and applied one to two times daily.

·        Systemic (oral) medications are not prescribed for keratosis pilaris.

·        However if papules are opened and become infected, antibiotics may be necessary to treat the infection." Keratosis Pilaris


"I did a little research on vitamin a deficiency and it seems to be, if not a cause, then a trigger to a lot of skin problems. However, taking vitamin A does not necessarily eliminate the deficiency. I know this because I was taking a vitamin A/B combo and nothing was happening. Then after doing some reading about eczema…omega 3 fatty acids (found in cod liver oil supplements [caution: cod liver oil in the quantity necessary to get three grams per day of omega-3's would contain dangerous levels of vitamin A]) help the body absorb vitamin A. This has worked for me and has offset a lot of the uncomfortable dry skin associated with not only my eczema, but also on my arms and legs (KP)." Archives: Re: Vitamin A and KP


·        Essential Fatty Acids (EFAs): Things to Avoid: Too Much Fish, Farm-Raised Fish

·        Essential Fatty Acids (EFAs): Things to Avoid: Dangerous Levels of Vitamin A

·        Nutrition: Vitamins and Minerals: Liquid Multivitamins: Absorption

·        Nutrition: Vitamins and Minerals: Vitamin A: Absorption



ADD, Dyslexia

"If a child does not get enough EFAs, the myelin sheath protecting the axons of billions of neurons may not be adequate. Recent research is showing that boys with ADD have EFA deficiencies (Stevens, L. et al, 1995:000-000) and similar deficiencies are possibly responsible for the symptoms of dyslexia. (Stordy & Nicholl, 2000:105)."

ILT: Essential Fatty Acids (EFAs)



"When researchers monitor eating habits across countries, they find that as fish consumption goes up, depression rates go down. In fact, there is a sixty-fold difference in depression rates across countries from the highest (Japan and Taiwan) to the lowest (North America, Europe and New Zealand) omega-3 fat consumption. Even postpartum depression decreases as women increase their consumption of fish. Many people also report a drop in mood when they switch too quickly to a low-fat diet. (Page 156)"

Book: Somer, Elizabeth, M.A., R.D. Food & Mood. Henry Holt and Company, LLC, 1999.


Serotonin and Dopamine

"Over the last decade, neuroscientists have been examining the consequences of omega-3 deficiencies in the central nervous system. Alterations in serotonin and dopamine levels, as well as the functioning of these two important neurotransmitters is evident in an omega-3 deficiency. The changes observed in omega-3 deficiency in animals is strikingly similar to that found in autopsy studies of human depression.20"

New Findings About Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Depression by Alan C. Logan, ND, FRSH


Blood-Brain Barrier

"In addition to changing serotonin and dopamine levels and functioning, omega-3 deficiencies are known to compromise the blood-brain barrier, which normally protects the brain from unwanted matter gaining access.21"

New Findings About Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Depression by Alan C. Logan, ND, FRSH


Blood Flow

"Omega-3 deficiency can also decrease normal blood flow to the brain,22,23 an interesting finding given the studies which show that patients with depression have compromised blood flow to a number of brain regions.24,25"

New Findings About Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Depression by Alan C. Logan, ND, FRSH


Antidepressant Activity

"Finally, omega-3 deficiency also causes a 35 percent reduction in brain phosphatidylserine (PS) levels.26 This is also of relevance when considering that PS has documented antidepressant activity in humans.27,28"

New Findings About Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Depression by Alan C. Logan, ND, FRSH


Mechanisms of EPA/DHA Regulation of Mood

"DHA [an omega-3 fatty acid] is found in high levels in the cells of the central nervous system (neurons); here it acts as a form of scaffolding for structural support.29 When omega-3 intake is inadequate, the nerve cell becomes stiff as cholesterol and omega-6 fatty acids are substituted for omega-3.30 When a nerve cell becomes rigid, proper neurotransmission from cell to cell and within cells will be compromised.31

     While DHA provides structure and helps to ensure normal neurotransmission, EPA  [an omega-3 fatty acid] may be more important in the signaling within nerve cells.32 Normalizing communications within nerve cells has been suggested to be an important factor in alleviating depressive symptoms.33"

New Findings About Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Depression by Alan C. Logan, ND, FRSH


"In addition, EPA can lower the levels of two important immune chemicals,

·        tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFa) and

·        interleukin 1 beta (IL-1ß),

·        as well as prostaglandin E2.34

All three of these chemicals are elevated in depression.35-38 In fact, higher levels of TNFa and IL-1ß are associated with severity of depression.39"

New Findings About Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Depression by Alan C. Logan, ND, FRSH


"Finally, EPA has been hypothesized to increase brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF), which is known to be lower in depressed patients.20 BDNF is neuroprotective, enhances neurotransmission, has antidepressant activity and supports normal brain structure. BDNF may prevent the death of nerve cells in depression."

New Findings About Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Depression by Alan C. Logan, ND, FRSH


Correcting an Omega-3 Deficiency

Note: More information about sources of omega-3s can be found on the page Nutrition: Essential Fatty Acid (EFA) Sources


"Flax, our richest source of omega 3, quickly replenishes a long-standing omega 3 deficiency. A dozen 8 oz. bottles of good quality flax oil consumed over the course of a few months will suffice [approximately one bottle every five days, 1.6 ounces per day]."

The Edelson Center: Essential Fatty Acids: The Healing Fats


"There have been some published case reports indicating that flaxseed oil may be helpful in cases of bipolar depression and the anxiety disorder agoraphobia.40 The first controlled clinical trial indicating that omega-3 fatty acids may be of benefit in depression was published in 1999. In this case, 9:6 g ['9:6 g' should be read a dose of 6 g per day for a period of nine days?] of EPA/DHA versus placebo led to longer periods of remission and improvement in depressive symptoms in those with bipolar depression.41"

New Findings About Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Depression by Alan C. Logan, ND, FRSH


2g Daily of Pure EPA

"Some researchers theorize that such high doses of EPA/DHA may not be necessary and that low levels of pure EPA may be of benefit.32 In a study published in the American Journal of Psychiatry, researchers showed that just 2g of pure EPA could improve the symptoms of treatment-resistant depression. The researchers found that the EPA (versus placebo), when added to an ineffective antidepressant for one month, significantly improved depressive symptoms.42"

New Findings About Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Depression by Alan C. Logan, ND, FRSH


1g Daily of Pure EPA

"A larger study published in Archives of General Psychiatry replicated these findings, however, this time various doses of EPA were examined. Those on ineffective antidepressants were given 1g, 2g or 4g of pure EPA or a placebo in addition to the medication. Interestingly, the 1g daily dose of EPA led to the most significant improvements over the three-month study; it appeared that less was more. There were significant improvements in depressive symptoms, sleep, anxiety, lassitude, libido and thoughts of suicide.43"

New Findings About Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Depression by Alan C. Logan, ND, FRSH


"Harvard researchers have also shown that just 1g of pure EPA is beneficial in the treatment of borderline personality disorder. This personality disorder, which is particularly difficult to treat, is characterized by both depressive and aggressive symptoms. This was a two-month placebo-controlled study and the results showed that EPA has a mood-regulating effect, improving both depression and aggression versus placebo.46"

New Findings About Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Depression by Alan C. Logan, ND, FRSH


4.4g EPA and 2.2g DHA Mix

"Researchers from Taiwan Medical University published a recent study in which they found that a 4.4g EPA and 2.2g DHA mix could alleviate depression versus placebo in those with treatment-resistant depression. This was a two-month study involving patients who were on antidepressants that were not working. As with the other omega-3 studies discussed, the fish oil was well tolerated and no adverse events were reported.44"

New Findings About Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Depression by Alan C. Logan, ND, FRSH


Antarctic Krill Oil (400mg EPA, 240mg DHA)

"There is also evidence that omega-3 oils may be of benefit in treating depressive symptoms outside of major depressive disorder. Canadian researchers showed that Antarctic krill oil (400mg EPA, 240mg DHA) could improve depressive symptoms associated with premenstrual syndrome.45"

New Findings About Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Depression by Alan C. Logan, ND, FRSH


DHA Alone not Recommended

"To date, with one exception, all studies conducted on omega-3 fatty acids and mood have had a positive outcome. The singular negative study examined pure DHA in patients with depression. The results in the case showed that DHA alone was no better than placebo in alleviating depressive symptoms.47"

New Findings About Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Depression by Alan C. Logan, ND, FRSH


Omega-6 Deficiency

"Long--term exclusion or excessive use of flax oil can result in omega 6 deficiency after about two years, because flax oil is omega 3 rich but omega 6 poor."

The Edelson Center: Essential Fatty Acids: The Healing Fats



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