·         Arousal

·         The Brain

·         Exercise

·         Indoor Air Pollution

·         Muscle Tension

·         Nutrition

·         Posture

·         Sensory Processing

·         Sleep

·         Other Suggestions


Research Topics


My Theories

Former Theories



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·        What is Dehydration?

·        Symptoms

·        Effects

·           Description

·           Joint Pain

·           Low Back Pain

·        Risk Factors

·        Prevention

·        Things to Avoid

·        Things to Consider

·        Related Topics

·         Resources


What is Dehydration?

"Dehydration occurs when your body loses too much fluid. When you stop drinking water or lose large amounts of fluids through diarrhea, vomiting, sweating, or strenuous exercise, your body's cells absorb fluid from the blood and other body tissues."

WebMD: Dehydration: Topic Overview



"Dehydration can occur at any age, but it is most dangerous for babies, small children, and older adults."

WebMD: Dehydration: Topic Overview



·        "Dry or sticky mouth

·        Low or no urine output; concentrated urine appears dark yellow

·        Not producing tears

·        Sunken eyes

·        Markedly sunken fontanelles (the soft spot on the top of the head) in an infant

·        Lethargic or comatose (with severe dehydration)

In addition to the symptoms of actual dehydration, you may also have vomiting, diarrhea, or the feeling that you 'can't keep anything down', all of which could be causing the dehydration."

A.D.A.M., Inc.: Dehydration


"Contrary to popular belief, dry mouth or thirst is not the first sign of dehydration."

Nutrition Info: Dangers of Chronic Dehydration by Albert Grazia, M.S., N.D.




"One of the most misunderstood and upsetting conditions that is a complication of severe dehydration is bulimia. People who suffer from bulimia…suffer from constant 'hunger.' When they eat, they cannot retain the food and have an instant uncontrollable urge to vomit--thus, their antisocial life-style. In these people, their sensation of 'hunger' is, in fact, an indicator of thirst, and their urge to vomit is the protection mechanism that is explained above [antiperistalsis]. If bulimics begin to rehydrate their body well and drink water before their food, this problem will disappear. (Page 38)"

Book: F. Batmanghelidj, M.D., Your Body's Many Cries for Water, 2nd ed. Global Health Solutions, 1995. 


Chronic Dehydration

"Years of chronic dehydration can not be reversed overnight by simply drinking a couple of glasses of water. Rather water intake should be gradually increased. How do you know if you're drinking enough water? Your urine should be clear or lightly colored. A darker colored urine may be an indication that your kidneys are working hard to concentrate the urine."

Nutrition Info: Dangers of Chronic Dehydration by Albert Grazia, M.S., N.D.


"Could you be chronically dehydrated? Many people are and never realize it."

Nutrition Info: Dangers of Chronic Dehydration by Albert Grazia, M.S., N.D.


"Chronic dehydration has become a commonplace and undiagnosed condition."

BabySnark: Supplements & Tips (pregnancy advice)



“If you do not drink water before you eat the food [drink water 1/2 hour before eating], the process of food digestion will take its toll on the cells of the body. (Page 84)”

Book: F. Batmanghelidj, M.D., Your Body's Many Cries for Water, 2nd ed. Global Health Solutions, 1995.


“There comes a moment when the brain begins to recognize the further imposed severe shortage of water in the body [thirst], and then in the middle of eating food will compel the person to drink it. It is already too late, because the damage is registered by the cells lining the blood vessels. (Page 86)”

Book: F. Batmanghelidj, M.D., Your Body's Many Cries for Water, 2nd ed. Global Health Solutions, 1995.


Walking two times a day—every 12 hours—will maintain the activity of the hormone sensitive fat burning enzyme (hormone sensitive lipase) during day and night and help clear away the excess lipid deposits in the arteries. (Page 88)”

Book: F. Batmanghelidj, M.D., Your Body's Many Cries for Water, 2nd ed. Global Health Solutions, 1995.


“My own [blood cholesterol] levels started around 89 and never went above 130. Why? Because for years and years, my day started with two to three glasses of water [when referring to drinking water ½ hour before a meal]. (Page 88)”

Book: F. Batmanghelidj, M.D., Your Body's Many Cries for Water, 2nd ed. Global Health Solutions, 1995.


“If increased water intake lowers cholesterol levels, only to rise again, make sure your body is not getting short of salt. Read the section on salt in chapter 12. (Page 89)”

Book: F. Batmanghelidj, M.D., Your Body's Many Cries for Water, 2nd ed. Global Health Solutions, 1995.


·          Nutrition: Water: Dosage

·           Nutrition: Salt: Dosage



"Another complication of dehydration can be constipation. When water is in short supply in the body, the colon will act to restrict unnecessary water loss through the stools. Colon muscles will contract to squeeze out and subsequently reabsorb water back into circulation. This can result in harder stools that are not only more difficult to pass, but may also irritate and weaken the walls of the colon, resulting in small pockets known as diverticuli. Since the water that the colon reabsorbs back into circulation is not filtered water, but wastewater, it must then be filtered by the liver and the kidneys. This may place additional strain on these overworked organs."

Nutrition Info: Dangers of Chronic Dehydration by Albert Grazia, M.S., N.D.


·          Research Topics: Similarities with Autism: Theories: Endorphins, Endorphin-Like Opioids, and Autism

·          NIH: National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse: Constipation


Depression--Tryptophan, Serotonin, Melatonin, Histamine

·          Arousal: Depression: 'Dehydration: Tryptophan, Serotonin, Melatonin, Histamine'


Digestion, Dyspeptic Pain (e.g. heartburn)

·        Dehydration: Digestion, Dyspeptic Pain (e.g. Heartburn)


Histamine, Water Rationing System

·          Arousal: Allergies: Histamine, Water Rationing System

·          Other Suggestions: Breathing: Humidification


Kidney Stones

"Anyone can get kidney stones, but some people are more likely to develop stones than others.

·          Typically, a person with a kidney stone is a man 20 to 60 years old. Although four out of five kidney stone sufferers are men, women also get kidney stones.

·          Often, there is a family history of kidney stones.

·          Chronic dehydration (lack of body water) can lead to kidney stones.

  • Very hot weather,
  • Heavy sweating, or
  • Too little fluid intake contribute to the formation of kidney stones.
  • People who work outdoors in hot weather and who do not drink enough fluids may increase their risk of getting stones.

·          Some physicians believe that our rich diet in the U.S. may promote the development of kidney stones. Experts note that the incidence of kidney stones has tripled in Japan since World War II - at the same time the Japanese diet has become more like our own.

·          A variety of other conditions are linked with kidney stone development. These include urinary tract blockage, urinary infections that recur, bowel disease, and certain inherited disorders. People who are paralyzed or who have to rest in bed for long periods of time are also at increased risk for kidney stones, as are men and women who fly long space missions."

American Foundation for Urologic Disease: Kidney Stones


Lymph Flow

"Chronic dehydration may contribute to a reduction in lymph flow, which in turn may contribute to or cause varied problems." Dehydration


·          Vitamins & Minerals: Fat-Soluble Vitamins: Absorption

·          Research Topics: Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Symptoms



"When you are not drinking enough fluids, your

·          Muscles begin to get tired and

·          You may have leg cramps or

·          Feel faint."

WebMD: Dehydration: Topic Overview


Pain, Localized Thirst


"Pain may be a warning of localized thirst; that is, the pain signal may be a warning of dehydration in that specific area (a regional thirst), for example

·          Low back pain,

·         Migraine headache,

·          Joint pain, and

·          Angina [chest pain]." Dehydration


Joint Pain:

"Another possible complication of dehydration is joint pain. The cartilage in your body, including your joints, is composed mainly of water. As cartilage surfaces glide over one another, some exposed cells become worn and peel away. New cartilage is normally produced to replace the damaged cells. Due to the lack of blood vessels in cartilage, water is needed to transport the nutrients required for maintenance and repair. Dehydration may increase the abrasive damage and delay its repair, resulting in joint pain."

Nutrition Info: Dangers of Chronic Dehydration by Albert Grazia, M.S., N.D.


Low Back Pain:

"It should be appreciated that the spinal joints--intervertebral joints and their disc structures--are dependent on different hydraulic properties of water stored in the disc core, as well as in the end plate cartilage covering the flat surfaces of the spinal vertebrae. In spinal vertebral joints, water is not only a lubricant for the contact surfaces, it is held in the disc core within the intervertebral space and supports the compression weight of the upper part of the body. Fully 75 percent of the weight of the upper part of the body is supported by the water volume that is stored in the disc core; 25 percent is supported by the fibrous materials around the disc (see Figure 8) [in the book]. The principle in the design of all joints is for water to act as a lubricating agent, as well as bearing the force produced by weight, or tension produced by muscle action on the joint. It is the same type of force."

Book: F. Batmanghelidj, M.D., Your Body's Many Cries for Water, 2nd ed. Global Health Solutions, 1995. 


Problems with Detoxification

"Most of the body's water is found within the cells, and the next largest amount is in the fluid surrounding the cells.

·          If water is not replaced frequently, this surrounding fluidmay continue to accumulate waste material and other contaminates.

·          The pumps in your cell membranes may not work as efficiently because allowing dirty water into the cell can cause cellular damage or cell death."

Nutrition Info: Dangers of Chronic Dehydration by Albert Grazia, M.S., N.D.


·          Arousal: Allergies: More Information: MCS: Detoxification

·          Indoor Air Pollution: Ions: Misconceptions: Free Radicals


Severe Dehydration

"It's no wonder, then, that falling short of the daily recommendation may make you ill. At first, you might feel thirsty and tired. Left unchecked, dehydration will progress with a

·        loss of appetite,

·        nausea,

·        tingling in the arms and feet,

·        labored breathing,

·        dizziness, and

·        possibly mental confusion."

WebMD: Can I Overdose on Water?


"By the time you become severely dehydrated, there is no longer enough fluid in the body to get blood to your organs. You may begin to go into shock, a life-threatening condition."

WebMD: Dehydration: Topic Overview



Lack of Thirst Sense as a Cause of CFIDS:

·          Research Topics: CFIDS: Low Blood Volume: Theory


Lack of Thirst Sense and Lack of SMR Brainwaves:

·          Research Topics: Brainwaves: SMR (Sensorimotor Response) or Low Beta Brainwaves


Things which Shut off the Thirst Sense:

·           Nutrition: Sea Salt: Things to Consider: Drinking Water Alone


Opioids (e.g. endorphins) and Histamine:

"The present study investigated the interaction between histamine and opioid systems on water intake [thirst] in adult male rats."

Eur J Pharmacol.: Effect of morphine, naloxone and histamine system on water intake in adult male rats.


"Administration of

·          Histamine (40-80 microg/rat) and

·          Naloxone [an opioid antagonist] (0.5-1 microg/rat)

Increased [water intake (thirst)]"

Eur J Pharmacol.: Effect of morphine, naloxone and histamine system on water intake in adult male rats.


·          "Morphine [an opioid] (2.5 microg/rat),

·          Pyrilamine (25-50 microg/rat), the histamine H1 receptor antagonist [an antihistamine], and

·          Ranitidine (10-20 microg/rat), the histamine H2 receptor antagonist [an antihistamine],

Decreased water intake [thirst] in isolated rats"

Eur J Pharmacol.: Effect of morphine, naloxone and histamine system on water intake in adult male rats.


·          "Blockade of histamine H1 and H2 receptors [with antihistamines] attenuated [weakened] the histamine-induced response [thirst].

·          Pyrilamine, but not ranitidine, increased [augmented] the inhibitory [decreased thirst] effect induced by morphine [an opioid].

·          Also, pharmacological blockade of histamine H1 and H2 receptors [with antihistamines] decreased [lessened] the naloxone-induced effect on water intake [increased thirst].

It is concluded that the histaminergic [histamine producing] system may have a close interaction with morphine [an opioid]and naloxone[an opioid antagonist] on drinking behavior."

Eur J Pharmacol.: Effect of morphine, naloxone and histamine system on water intake in adult male rats.


Risk Factors

Babies and Small Children

·         "A larger portion of their bodies consists of water.

·         Children have a high metabolic rate, so their bodies use more water.

·         A child's kidneys are not as efficient and do not conserve water as well as an adults.

·         They have an immature immune system, which increases the risk of illnesses that cause vomiting and diarrhea.

·         Children often will not drink or eat when they are not feeling well.

·         They depend on their caregivers to provide them with food and fluids."

WebMD: Dehydration: Topic Overview


Older Adults

·         "Have a decreased thirst sensation and often don't feel the urge to drink.

·         Their kidneys may not work efficiently.

·         May have physical problems, such as arthritis, which may interfere with their ability to drink, make it difficult to hold a glass, or painful to get up from a chair.

·         May have conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease or a stroke, that make it difficult to communicate their needs.

·         Take medications that increase the risk for dehydration.

·         May not have enough money to adequately feed themselves.

·         May intentionally limit fluid intake because they have a problem with incontinence or have a disease that makes going to the bathroom painful or exhausting."

WebMD: Dehydration: Topic Overview



·        Other Suggestions: Dehydration: Prevention


Things to Avoid

Water Intoxication

"You would need to chug down about three quarts of water [3/4 gallons, 2850 ml] or more all at once to come down with a case of true water intoxication. It does happen, but so rarely that I couldn't find statistics on the number of cases.

     These people become drowsy, lightheaded, and weak. They have trouble coordinating bodily movements and thinking straight, looking and feeling as if they just stumbled out of the local bar. But the water-intoxicated can't just go home and sleep it off. They must get treatment or risk going into convulsions, a coma, or even death.

     What most Americans actually need to worry about is getting the eight glasses of water nutrition experts recommend [usually recommended as a minimum] (that's eight 8-ounce glasses). They suggest even more for athletes or people living in hot climates. While it may seem like a lot, it really isn't when you recognize that water accounts for up to 80% of your body weight and plays an integral role throughout in the smooth functioning of your body's vital systems."

WebMD: Can I Overdose on Water?


"There can be undesirable side effects [such as water intoxication which can be fatal] if you drink TOO much water, but 8-10 glasses per day (or slightly more) is not sufficient to bring these on. Make sure you supplement with

·          Salt [sea salt],

·          Potassium and

·          Other minerals and

·          Vitamins (or make very sure you are getting truly sufficient quantities from your diet)."

BabySnark: Supplements & Tips (pregnancy advice)


Things to Consider


"Certain medicines may add to dehydration and those patients who take diuretics (water pills) should be extra careful as they can sometimes be in a pre-dehydrated state. If you realize you are not sweating, go inside and begin cooling off and replacing fluids, Dr. Garraway added. 'Most importantly in the summer heat and humidity, pace yourself and drink plenty of water before you even head outdoors,' Dr. Garraway recommended."

The News Journal: Beware of Summer Health Hazards



·          “Another product the doctor says will cause dehydration is the artificial sweetener aspartame.

·           Used in conjunction with caffeine sodas and coffee, it could cause additional health problems in the body.”

Colorado Daily: Dr. Batman touts miracle healing power of water


Diuretic Foods and Beverages

What is a Diuretic?

"A substance which causes an increase in the production of urine"

Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary: diuretic


Common Diuretics

"People often think that even if they don't actually drink water, they are getting enough by drinking

·          Coffee,

·          Tea,

·          Soft drinks,

·          Juice or

·          Beer.

The truth is that many of these beverages have a diuretic effect, encouraging the body to excrete water through urination, rather than retaining it…"

Nutrition Info: Dangers of Chronic Dehydration by Albert Grazia, M.S., N.D.


"…Parsley a diuretic"

Food Reference Website: Herbal Essentials


"Alcohol is diuretic and causes excessive urination dehydrating the body. This is also the cause of splitting headaches the following day. The brain tries to expand to fill the gap that the diminished water in the cranium creates."



"All vegetables are…diuretics, but in particular

·          Celery,

·          Cucumber,

·          Lettuce,

·          Watercress,

·          Tomatoes,

·          Onions,

·          Carrots and

·          Bell peppers.

·          Herbs like parsley…"

Do you know what is what: Diuretic


·          Chives

·          Fennel

·          Garlic

·          Pumpkins

·          Radishes

Encyclopaedia of Vegetables


"What counts as water? Fresh, noncarbonated water! Sparkling water, which can have a diuretic effect, doesn’t count. Neither do drinks that contain caffeine or alcohol, for the same reason. (In fact, limiting your intake of alcohol and caffeine will help you stay hydrated). Your water requirement is over and above the water you get from foods (like soup) and other beverages."

Get With the Program: Boost Your Metabolism--Stay Hydrated



·          "Consider drinking herbal tea instead.

·           If you are going to have an espresso [or some other food or drink which has a diuretic effect], add an extra serving of water to your daily intake."

Do you know what is what: Diuretic


Urinary Incontinence

Risk Factors

· Diseases & Conditions: Urinary Incontinence


Urinary Incontinence In Men

“UI is a medical problem. To find a treatment that addresses the root of the problem, you need to talk to your health care provider. The four forms of UI are

·          Temporary or reversible incontinence related to urinary tract infection, constipation, or delirium

·          Stress incontinence caused by weak pelvic and sphincter muscles

·          Urge incontinence caused by damaged or irritable nerves

·          Overflow incontinence that results when an individual is unable to empty the bladder”

NIH: NKUDIC: Urinary Incontinence in Men


Urinary Incontinence In Women

“The Types of Urinary Incontinence

·          Stress: Leakage of small amounts of urine during physical movement (coughing, sneezing, exercising).

·          Urge: Leakage of large amounts of urine at unexpected times, including during sleep.

·          Functional: Untimely urination because of physical disability, external obstacles, or problems in thinking or communicating that prevent a person from reaching a toilet.

·          Overflow: Unexpected leakage of small amounts of urine because of a full bladder.

·          Mixed: Usually the occurrence of stress and urge incontinence together.

·          Transient: Leakage that occurs temporarily because of a condition that will pass (infection, medication).”

NIH: NKUDIC: Urinary Incontinence in Women


Urinary Incontinence In Children

·           NIH: NKUDIC: Urinary Incontinence in Children



·        “Practice Kegels (described below),

·        Cross your legs,

·        Stand still, or

·        Breathe slowly in and out for counts of four…”

Harvard Women’s Health Watch: 'Bladder control training for urinary incontinence'


·        American Yoga Association: 'Incontinence – The Problem Nobody Wants to Talk About'

·        RealAge Health Information: Incontinence, overactive bladder (OAB), treatment, tips, Kegel exercises 


Related Topics (Urinary Incontinence)

·           Research Topics: Squatting


Things to Consider

·        Posture: Back and Neck Problems (exercises for lower back pain)

·         Posture: Weak Glutes

·        Posture: Sitting for Long Periods

·        Posture: Office Chairs

·        Posture: Weak Adductors


Related Topics (Dehydration)

·        Muscle Tension: Leg Tension

·        Other Suggestions: Breathing: Humidification

·          Other Suggestions: Breathing: Respiratory Acidosis

·           Other Suggestions: Hypovolemia (Low Blood Volume) 

·      Vision: Dry Eye Syndrome

·           Research Topics: Chronic Fatigue and Immune Dysfunction Syndrome (CFIDS)




Your Body's Many Cries for Water

·          Your Body's Many Cries for Water (You are not sick, you are thirsty) by F. Batmanghelidj, M.D.


"Recommended reading"

Nutrition Info: Dangers of Chronic Dehydration by Albert Grazia, M.S., N.D.


"…The extensively researched and fascinating book, 'Your Body's Many Cries for Water', should be required reading by all, and definitely belongs on every health care practitioner’s bookshelf."

Dr. Joseph Mercola: Drink More Spring or Filtered Water to Improve Every Facet of Your Health


·          The Island Grove: Your Body's Many Cries for Water (Summary)


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